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Biological age blood test·
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Aging-Associated Diseases

Examples of agingassociated diseases are atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, cancer, arthritis, cataracts, osteoporosis, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and Alzheimer’s disease. The incidence of all of these diseases increases exponentially with age.

Human longevity is a complex phenotype influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. It is also known to be associated with various types of age-related diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The central dogma of molecular biology demonstrates the conversion of DNA to RNA to the encoded protein. These proteins interact to form complex cell signaling pathways, which perform various biological functions. With prolonged exposure to the environment, the in vivo homeostasis adapts to the changes, and finally, humans adopt the phenotype of longevity or aging-related diseases. In this review, we focus on two different states: longevity and aging-related diseases, including CVD and AD, to discuss the relationship between genetic characteristics, including gene variation, the level of gene expression, regulation of gene expression, the level of protein expression, both genetic and environmental influences and homeostasis based on these phenotypes shown in organisms.

Biologische leeftijd berekenen

Biological Age Blood Test

Biologische leeftijd berekenen

Did you know that you can determine your biological age through a simple blood test? While your chronological age is based on your date of birth, a biological age blood test measures various biomarkers to determine how well your body is aging. By taking this test, you can gain valuable insights into your overall health and identify areas where you may need to make lifestyle changes to improve your biological age.

So, why should you care about your biological age? Well, research has shown that people with a higher biological age than their chronological age are at a greater risk for age-related diseases like heart disease, Alzheimer’s, and cancer. However, the good news is that you can take steps to reduce your biological age and lower your risk of these diseases.

Package of lab tests to calculate biological age:

  • Albumine Blood Test
  • Creatinine Blood Test
  • Fasting plasma glucose (FPG, Glucose Blood Test, Fasting blood Glucose test, FBG)
  • High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) Blood Test
  • White Blood Cells (WBC)
  • Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV)
  • Lymphocyte, % (LYMP%)
  • Red Cell Distribution Width, % (RDW)
  • Alkaline Phosphatase Blood test (ALP)

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For whom is this product intended?

Biological age is a measure of an individual’s health and physical condition that goes beyond their chronological age. While we all age, the rate and manner of aging can differ significantly between individuals, based on lifestyle habits, genetics, and other factors. Measuring biological age can help individuals understand how their bodies are aging and identify areas for improvement in their health habits. One tool for measuring biological age is Levine’s Phenotypic Age calculator, which uses a combination of biological markers to estimate an individual’s age at the cellular level.

So, for whom is this product? In short, anyone who is interested in their health and wants to take a proactive approach to aging. Individuals who want to optimize their health and longevity may benefit from using Levine’s Phenotypic Age calculator. This tool can be particularly useful for individuals who are at higher risk for age-related diseases, such as heart disease or cancer, or who have a family history of such conditions.

Furthermore, individuals who have experienced significant changes in their lifestyle or health status may also benefit from measuring their biological age. For example, if someone has recently quit smoking, started exercising regularly, or made significant changes to their diet, measuring their biological age can provide an objective measure of the impact of these changes on their health.

Discover Your True Biological Age with a Blood Test: Why Should You Get Tested?

But why should you purchase lab tests to calculate your biological age? The main reason is that it provides valuable information about your overall health status and can help identify areas for improvement. By knowing your biological age, you can make informed decisions about your health and lifestyle, such as increasing physical activity, improving diet, or reducing stress levels.

Moreover, measuring biological age can help you detect potential health issues early on when they are more manageable. For example, if someone’s biological age is significantly higher than their chronological age, it may indicate that they are at higher risk for age-related diseases, such as heart disease or cognitive decline. Armed with this knowledge, you can take proactive steps to reduce the risk and improve your overall health and well-being.

In conclusion, measuring biological age using Levine’s Phenotypic Age calculator can provide individuals with valuable insights into their health and aging process. By understanding your biological age, you can take a proactive approach to your health and make informed decisions about your lifestyle habits. With this information, you can optimize their health and well-being and potentially increase their lifespan.

Ordering Blood Tests in the Netherlands

If you are interested in checking your biological age, you can easily purchase a blood test kit from Healsens.

1 Download the Healsens App from Google Play or the App Store, depending on your device.

2 Complete the registration process in the app.

3 Go to the “Risks” page via the bottom menu of the application.

4 Tap on the test you need — ”Levine’s Phenotypic Biological Age

5 Tap on the “Add to Cart” button inside the test page and proceed with the ordering process.

Process of taking blood tests in:

» Discover how to check and improve your health with Healsens preventive checkup plan.

Note

If you want to assess your biological age but are not residing in the Netherlands or have opted for a different laboratory, Healsens cannot upload your blood test results for you. Nevertheless, you have the option to undergo the required tests at any laboratory in your country and manually input the obtained results into the application. Healsens will open more opportunities for you to naturally normalize your blood test results. Furthermore, you gain full access to investigate your health risk assessment based on the provided data.

Why should you trust Healsens to calculate your biological age?

Healsens is committed to providing you with accurate and reliable results that you can trust. We partner with Medical Laboratories Dr. Stein & Collegae, a highly respected and accredited laboratory in the Netherlands, to ensure that your blood samples are processed with the utmost care and accuracy. Lab Stein has an excellent reputation within the Dutch healthcare sector. With more than 20 medical specialists (laboratory doctors), chemists, biologists, doctors-microbiology etc. and 600 employees, the laboratory is one of the three largest medical laboratories in Europe. They carry out more than 5 million tests per year.

Furthermore, we use Levine’s Phenotypic Age calculator to estimate your biological age. This algorithm has been proven with high accuracy in multiple studies and is widely accepted as a reliable method for calculating biological age.

At Healsens, we understand that not everyone is comfortable with preventive medical examinations without a referral from their general practitioner. That’s why we work with our partners to ensure that our tests are conducted with the highest standards of care and confidentiality.

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cardiovascular risk assessment

CARDIOVASCULAR RISK ASSESSMENT

Cardiovascular diseases such as ischemic heart disease, thrombosis, arterial hypertension with its complications – myocardial infarction and stroke – constitute a dynamic multistep process that is closely related to inflammation1. It is well-known that CVD diseases rank first among all other diseases of mankind. Traditionally for making an accurate diagnosis, the patient must undergo a series of procedures, undergo lab tests so that the doctor can prescribe the necessary treatment. However, there is another way. Doctors can use cardiovascular risk assessment tools aimed at detecting the disease at an early stage. This time, not only will we consider different methods / risk calculators that are now used in clinical practice, but we will also make the corresponding calculations using a real example of a patient’s history. And, of course, let’s talk about why, given the presence of such intelligent systems, the CVD problem is still relevant.

This article was last reviewed by Svetlana Baloban, Healsens, on January 24, 2020. This article was last modified on December 15, 2020.

Why do you need cardiovascular risk assessments?

Before proceeding to describe various calculation methods, let’s find out why they are needed at all. To begin with, we shall that most heart diseases develop completely asymptomatically over many years. In practice, it means that if one doesn’t feel any health problems, he or she simply does not go to the doctor unless a critical condition occurs. So, according to some estimates, 3.7 million Americans2 remain with undiagnosed heart disease. At the same time, the highest proportion of undiagnosed CVDs, which led to death from cardiovascular diseases, is among people aged 18–59 years. This is especially true when you consider that obesity, type 2 diabetes, and other risk factors are becoming more common at a young age.

Second, understanding the risks allows for early diagnosis of CVD and, accordingly, preventive lifestyle interventions or treatment as needed. And thirdly, the assessment of risk factors can clearly demonstrate how the total risk changes if you switch to a healthier lifestyle.

That is why, as early as in 1948, the Framingham Heart Study was initiated under the direction of the US National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. It was an ambitious medical research project that changed the medicine we know.

As part of this study, the main risk factors for cardiovascular disease were identified. These include the following indicators:

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Valuable information has also been obtained on the role of cholesterol, age, gender, and psychological problems. During this time, the risk assessment has changed and developed significantly. In this article, we will analyze what cardiovascular risk assessment means and what calculators are used now in medical practice.

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SCORE Risk Chart (Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation)

The European guidelines for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention recommend the use of modified SCORE risk charts. SCORE estimates the 10-year risk of fatal and non-fatal CVDs such as myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular disease, and congestive heart failure3.

The first Joint Working Group of European societies on coronary prevention used a simple risk chart. For their calculations, they considered the following categories:

  • age;
  • gender;
  • smoking status;
  • assessment of total cholesterol;
  • assessment of systolic blood pressure.

Then, the diagram became more complex in order to assess risks more accurately. So, in addition to total cholesterol, the ratio of cholesterol to HDL cholesterol was also taken into account in risk assessments.

In addition, given the geographic variability in cardiovascular risk across Europe, two SCORE charts have been developed for countries with high and low CVD risk. Countries with low risk include countries such as Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, San Marino , Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Countries at high risk of CVD: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Lithuania, Montenegro, Morocco, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Tunisia and Turkey.

And the group of countries with a very high risk (note that the diagrams may underestimate the risk in these countries) included such countries as: Albania, Algeria, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, Egypt, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, North Macedonia , Moldova, Russian Federation, Syrian Arab Republic, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan.

Based on the data reflected on it, one can conclude about the level of risk:

  • high risk (above 10%) in the presence of two or more risk factors;
  • moderately high (5-10%) in the presence of two or more risk factors;
  • moderate risk (1–5%) in the presence of two or more risk factors;
  • low risk (below 1%) in the absence of risk factors or the presence of only one.

Due to this SCORE scale, the following cardiovascular diseases can be detected: stroke, myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism, dissecting aortic aneurysm.

Framingham Risk Score

The Framingham Risk Scale (FRS) determines the presence of diseases such as angina pectoris, coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, stroke. Like the SCORE scale, this system opens the door for making a forecast for the next 10 years. This scale was developed in North America. Thus, NCEP 4 recommends the Framingham Risk Score for cardiovascular risk assessment. You can also calculate it by yourself.

The total risk on the Framingham scale is defined as:

  • low (risk below 10%);
  • medium (risk from 10 to 20%);
  • high (risk above 20%).

A value over 30% indicates a very high risk of cardiovascular disease.

A 10-year risk estimate can be obtained as a percentage, which is then used to make decisions about disease prevention. This assessment is also evolving. For example, in 2009 CCS added additional risks to the Framingham risk scale4. It included a family history of coronary heart disease in a first-line relative. It takes into account male first-degree relative younger than 55 years and female first-degree relative younger than 65 years old. For elderly patients, sensitive C-reactive protein results can also help to reclassify risks.

Risks Calculators
Health Risks Calculators in Healsens App

Reynolds Risk Score

If you are healthy and do not have diabetes, the Reynolds Risk Score is designed for your cardiovascular risk assessment. It may predict your risk of heart attack, stroke, or other serious heart diseases over the next 10 years. The risk calculation is designed for people aged 45 and over. The scale assesses the following risk factors: gender, age, systolic blood pressure, total and “good” (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol, hs C-reactive protein level, myocardial infarction in parents under 60 years of age, smoking. You can calculate it yourself on the website http://www.reynoldsriskscore.org/.

For the Reynolds scale, a risk score of 10-15% is considered a moderate risk of cardiovascular disease over the next five years.

If the risk estimate is less than 10%, then the patient is considered to be at low risk of cardiovascular disease for the next five years.

ASCVD (Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease) Risk Score

The Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Risk Scale (ASCVD) is a national guideline developed by the American College of Cardiology. It calculates the 10-year risk of heart diseases, such as heart attack or stroke. This risk calculator is considered an important step forward in assessing the risk of both heart disease and stroke and provides estimates that are applicable to Blacks / African Americans. It is used among patients with no pre-existing cardiovascular disease aged 40 to 79 years.

ASCVD is also used as a decision making tool. For example, it can help a doctor determine which patients should receive statin therapy for the primary prevention of CVD5. The calculator has also been tested against the final USPSTF guidelines for initiating aspirin therapy6. It is also included in the JNC-8 guidelines for blood pressure management7.

The ASCVD risk score is given as a percentage:

  • A risk of 0 to 4.9 percent is considered low. Eating healthy and exercising will help reduce your risk. Medicines are not recommended if your LDL or “bad” cholesterol level is less than 190.
  • A risk of 5 to 7.4 percent is considered borderline. Statin use may be recommended if you have certain conditions or “risk enhancers”. These conditions can increase your risk of heart disease or stroke. Talk to your PCP to see if you have any risk enhancers.
  • A 7.5 to 20 percent risk is considered intermediate. Moderate statin therapy is recommended.
  • Risk above 20 percent is considered high. It is recommended to start with high-intensity statin therapy.

PROCAM Score (Prospective Cardiovascular Munster Study)

This PROCAM score for cardiovascular risk assessment makes it possible to determine the development of coronary heart disease and its complications – myocardial infarction, sudden death within the next 4–8 years.

This risk calculator takes into account non-modifiable developmental factors (gender, age, family history of myocardial infarction) and modifiable ones (smoking, systolic blood pressure, diabetes, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoproteins). The overall score ranges from 0 to 87 when all risk factors are estimated. At the same time, the risk of cardiovascular diseases is defined as low at less than 20%, and high at more than 20%.

QRISK (QRESEARCH Cardiovascular Risk Algorithm)

The QRISK assesses the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases for the next 10 years, including the risk of myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease, stroke, and transient cerebrovascular accident.

Assessing factors of the QRISK scale: age, gender, smoking, body mass index, family predisposition to cardiovascular diseases, treatment with drugs that reduce high blood pressure. The age for assessing QRISK ranges from 25 to 84 years old. Low risk – QRISK2 score less than 10%. This means that the likelihood of a stroke or heart attack in the next 10 years is less than one in ten. Moderate risk – QRISK2 10-20%. High risk – QRISK2 score over 20%. This means that a person has at least two out of ten chances of having a heart attack in the next 10 years.

Moreover, when a patient is admitted to a hospital, the GRACE scale can also be used. It can be used to assess the risk of nosocomial mortality, mortality and the development of myocardial infarction.

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The 65yo Patient’s CVD Risks

As an example, let’s review the case of a patient who was admitted to the intensive care unit 3 hours before dying of myocardial infarction at the age of 65. His complaints include vomiting, nausea, weakness, and shortness of breath that appeared within an hour of admission to the emergency department. On the eve of the event, the patient several times consulted the doctor about pain in the stomach and uncontrolled vomiting. The main risks include smoking with more than 40 years of experience. The man did not have diabetes or hypertension.

Cholesterol6.43mmol / L
Cholesterol – HDL1.02mmol / L
Cholesterol – LDL4.56mmol / L
Triglycerides1.32mmol / L
C-reactive protein3mg / L
Blood pressure120/80Hg

Based on the health data, the risk assessment of cardiovascular diseases was:

  • ASCVD score – 20.8% (high risk)
  • SCORE scale – 12.7% (high risk)
  • Framingham risk – 18.6% (average risk)
  • according to Reynolds – 19% (high risk)
  • by the PROCAM scale – 60 points or> 40% (high risk)
  • result on the QRISK risk scale – 23.5% (high risk)
  • on the ASSIGN scale – 30 (high risk)

It is important to note that despite the high risks, the man was not offered or received preventive treatment to reduce CVD risks.

Effectiveness of Using CVD Risk Scoring

So, the main factors in the development of CVD are known and there are effective and safe methods of treatment, however, cardiovascular diseases remain the main cause of death and severe disability worldwide. What’s the matter?

The problem is that traditional methods of preventing cardiovascular disease have proven to be insufficient. First, in practice, only 60-65% of cardiovascular diseases are identified using risk calculations8. In addition, the data showed that calculated risks do not always lead to disease development. Conversely, many acute clinical events occur in patients with moderate or no risk. This is most likely due to the fact that many other factors are not included in such calculations. The problem is also that there is no single risk assessment system. Therefore, different organizations offer their own options.

Finally, absolute risk based guidelines for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention are poorly used worldwide9! Although the guidelines available, the absolute risk is often not assessed. And even when it is assessed, it is not necessarily used to make management decisions as we see in the above case of a 65-year-old patient.

Finally, we add that studies have unequivocally shown that different CVD risk scales are the best signal for a patient showing it is time to change lifestyle in order to reduce risk factors10. These tools are safe11, which means they can be used everywhere. So that everyone can know their results and understand what changes are needed to reduce risks, Healsens makes calculations for most of the presented calculators, corresponding to the patient’s age. To download the application, follow the links below.

Unlock your health insights with our smart data analysis – the Free Health Tracker app, your reliable medical record!

Drastically reduce the time to detect chronic diseases & inspire healthy habits



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Lower your cholesterol

LOWER YOUR CHOLESTEROL

Even with these new ideas that inflammation is the cause of heart disease, cholesterol, and its constituents still account for heart problems in most cases. So this time, we’ll discuss what you can do if your lipid level test results exceed optimal levels. We’ll start by looking at how to lower your cholesterol without pills.

However, before getting down to this fascinating topic, let’s remember what problem we are solving.

☝️ Heart disease is the main cause of death.

☝️ 3.9 million people die from heart attacks in Europe every year1. And the cause of heart disease is the inflammatory process.

This inflammatory process begins with an excessive amount of LDL (“bad” cholesterol) particles appearing on the walls of the coronary arteries and causing subsequent oxidation. In turn, HDL particles (“good” cholesterol) reduce the risk of heart disease. So, they move excess LDL back to the liver and thus prevent inflammation and oxidation. We already discussed this topic in our article about the lipid profile.

There is yet another independent risk factor for heart disease: triglyceride (unbound fat) levels. Excessive amounts of high glycemic carbohydrates in the diet, as well as alcohol abuse, are common causes of elevated triglyceride levels.

How then can you lower your cholesterol? The first step to normalizing your cholesterol and triglyceride levels is following a healthy diet.

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How to Lower Your Cholesterol Naturally

Removing trans fats

There are two main types of trans fats in food: naturally-occurring and artificial trans fats. Let’s figure it out. Naturally-occurring trans fats are produced in the guts of some animals. Artificial trans fats (or trans fatty acids), on the other hand, are created in an industrial process. And for this, hydrogen is added to liquid vegetable oils to make them more solid.

It’s worth knowing that trans fats make us fatter than any other food with the same amount of calories. But that’s not all. Researchers at Wake Forest University have found that trans fats increase the amount of fat around the belly2. That happens not only because new fat is added, but also because fat from other areas moves to the abdominal area.

Of course, trans fats raise LDL (bad) cholesterol and lower HDL (good) cholesterol. So it is obvious that it increases the risk of heart disease and stroke.

This is why the American Heart Association recommends reducing foods containing partially hydrogenated vegetable oils. And in November 2013, the FDA tentatively determined that partially hydrogenated oils were no longer considered safe3. Therefore, it is recommended to choose foods where the trans fat content is 0. Let’s find out which foods can contain trans fats!

Unfortunately, trans fats can be found in many foods, such as donuts and pastries, cakes and pie crusts, cookies and frozen pizzas, margarine and other spreads. You can determine the amount of trans fat by looking at the Product Facts label. However, if “0 grams of trans fat” is indicated, it doesn’t mean that there are no trans fats there. According to the rules, they can still contain between 0 and less than 0.5 grams of trans fat per serving. You can also identify trans fats by reading the ingredient list and looking for ingredients called “partially hydrogenated oils.”

Reducing saturated fat

There is nothing more important to a healthy heart than reducing your intake of trans and saturated fats. They are critical to the effectiveness of the diet. And none of the other nutrients in the diet raises LDL levels like saturated fat.

Foods high in saturated fats include:

  • meat pies
  • sausages and fatty cuts of meat
  • fatty beef,
  • lamb,
  • pork,
  • poultry with skin,
  • foods containing coconut or palm oil
  • cakes and biscuits
  • butter, ghee and lard
  • cream
  • hard cheeses
  • other dairy products made from whole or reduced-fat (2 percent) milk

In addition, many baked goods and fried foods can contain high levels of saturated fats. Health advocates have repeatedly suggested the use of policy instruments to influence consumer behavior. For example, in 2011, Denmark even introduced a tax on saturated fat in food. But a year later, this tax was canceled, although studies have shown its effectiveness in changing consumer behavior4.

It should be said that a healthy body is able to maintain normal lipid levels, regardless of cholesterol intake. In other words, our liver does an excellent job of regulating blood cholesterol levels. However, if you passed the test and saw that you need to lower your cholesterol, then, probably, these mechanisms of cholesterol metabolism have begun to work incorrectly.

To prevent this problem, it is recommended to choose foods with less than 10% D.V* saturated fat per serving. The question naturally arises, what are the alternatives to saturated fats?

*For a 1,500-calorie diet, your daily DRI would be: Total fat: 33 to 58 grams. Saturated fat: No more than 15 grams. Cholesterol: No more than 200 to 300 grams.

What then to eat?

To get the nutrients you need, eat a diet that emphasizes:

  • fruits vegetables,
  • whole grains,
  • low-fat dairy products,
  • poultry, fish and nuts,
  • limiting red meat and sugary foods and drinks.
  • Choose lean meats and poultry without skin. And cook them without adding saturated and trans fats.

You should replace foods high in saturated fat with foods high in monounsaturated and / or polyunsaturated fats. This means eating foods made with liquid vegetable oil, but not with tropical oils. It also means eating fish and nuts. You can also try replacing some of the meat you eat with beans or legumes.

Fruits and vegetables aren’t just good for reducing your intake of trans and saturated fats. Soluble fiber, most of which is found in fruits and vegetables, also inhibits fat absorption. And this helps to lower the level of bad cholesterol (LDL). It is useful enrich your menu with legumes, oats (oat bread, porridge, oat bran in smoothies, and bread crumbs), and ground flax seeds, which can be sprinkled on almost anything.

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Quit smoking

Smokers are two to four times more likely to develop a heart attack than non-smokers5. There are 4,000 toxic substances in tobacco and tobacco smoke, many of which accelerate the processes leading to heart attacks. Cigarette smoking significantly increases the overall level of inflammation in the body6 and dramatically affects the growth of free radicals that accelerate the oxidation of LDL7. In addition, smoking increases the heart rate (HR)8, which accelerates wear and tear on the arteries. We could go on, but we’d rather just recommend not smoking and avoiding secondhand smoke.

Normalize weight

Being overweight is associated with a wide range of health problems, as well as several other risk factors for heart disease. Overweight is becoming a major factor in the development of metabolic syndrome9, type II diabetes, and hypertension10. Obesity significantly increases the risk of heart attacks, according to the extensive Framingham Study. Tens of thousands of people have been observed in this study for over 40 years11. But that’s not all! Being overweight is a major risk factor for increased inflammation in the body12. This is another argument for normalizing weight.

As we discussed above, optimal weight plays a key role in heart disease prevention. Meanwhile, losing even five kilograms of weight can significantly reduce the risk of heart attacks. So, losing weight will help lower LDL, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. At the same time, it can help you raise your good HDL cholesterol levels.

One study found that adults who took part in a 12-week exercise program, had their LDL cholesterol levels dropped by 18 points and total cholesterol dropped by 26 points13.

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Exploring Food Supplements to Help Lower Your Cholesterol Levels

Omega-3 & Fresh Fish

Certain food supplements may also have a positive effect on lipid profile recovery. So the 2017 study showed positive results when supplemented with omega-3 supplements14. At the same time, it was found that the best results were achieved in the group with fresh fish. So, people consumed 250 g farmed trout fish two times a week for dinner and lunch for 8 weeks. For omega-3s, the dosage was 2 g / day of omega-3 capsules. During the study, the total cholesterol levels dietary-fish group decreased by 53.84 mg / dL (12.7 mg / dL in omega-3 group).

Pic 1

Meanwhile, the method of preparing fish does not play a role and it turns out to be more significant how much fish has consumed1516. And finally, fish is generally recommended as a part of a healthy diet and it is considered to be a key component of a cardio-protective diet17. Moreover, it is an important source of various nutrients, such as protein, n-3 fatty acids, vitamin D, iodine, and selenium.

If you do plan on taking omega-3 fatty acids, please discuss this with your doctor. Especially if you are taking blood-thinning medications.

Flaxseed

Flaxseed contains considerable amounts of α-linolenic acid, phenolic compounds, and lignans, which each have the capacity to reduce circulating lipid concentrations18. So, a meta-analysis of sixty-two randomized controlled trials with a total of 3772 participants suggested that flaxseed supplementation can reduce total serum cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL in unhealthy subjects with high baseline lipids level19. At the same time, the addition of flaxseed is useful if you are already taking medications to normalize your lipid profile. In a study, participants took 28 g of flaxseed for 10 weeks.

Alpha-Lipoic Acid

Some other research has proven that adding alpha-lipoic acid can enhance lipid profile parameters, except HDL cholesterol levels20.

Calcium and Calcium+D

Positive results were achieved in the study of effects produced by calcium and calcium+D supplements on excess weight patients21. The results showed a decrease in triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol.

Red Yeast Rice

Red yeast rice (RYR), also called red fermented rice or red mold rice, is used as a dietary supplement to lower cholesterol levels2223. It contains varying amounts of natural monacolin K, which is a structural homolog to lovastatin, and shows properties comparable to synthetic statins. So, the research demonstrated that red yeast rice might be able to reduce cardiac events and provide positive effects on cardiovascular outcomes in a fashion similar to that of prescription statin therapy.

The safety profile of RYR supplements is highly similar to that of statins24. That is why RYR is widely used in prescriptions, as well as an alternative medicine and a food supplement, in Asia, the United States, and European countries.

So, we have described natural ways to lower your cholesterol. Of course, there are effective drug treatments for lowering lipid levels. These include statins among others.

This article was last reviewed by Svetlana Baloban, Healsens, on January 24, 2020. This article was last modified on July 24, 2021.

Unlock your health insights with our smart data analysis – the Free Health Tracker app, your reliable medical record!

Drastically reduce the time to detect chronic diseases & inspire healthy habits



FURTHER READING

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osteoporosis

WHAT IS OSTEOPOROSIS?

Osteoporosis literally means porous bone. As bones become more porous and fragile, the risk of fracture increases significantly. Surprisingly, while osteoporosis is much more common than other chronic diseases, it tends to receive less public attention, although the effects of certain fractures can lead to disability and death. The situation is aggravated by the fact that bone loss occurs silently and progressively. Often there are no symptoms until the first fracture occurs. Therefore, it is important to understand the reasons for the development and progression of this disease, as well as ways to prevent it.

This article was last reviewed by Svetlana Baloban, Healsens, on June 20, 2020. This article was last modified on 10 June 2020.

What causes osteoporosis

Our bones are living tissue, and they are constantly changing. From the moment of birth to adulthood, they develop and strengthen. As we age, some of our bone cells begin to dissolve the bone matrix (resorption), while new bone cells deposit the osteoid, thus forming new bone tissue. This process is known as remodeling. So when we are young, this crumbling-building process remains in balance and the bones remain strong. However, around the age of 30, bone mass stops growing. And if the body doesn’t get enough calcium, it will take calcium from the bones. And as a rule, already at the age of 40-50, more bone may be lost than formed, which leads to fractures.

Until recently, it was believed that osteoporosis affects mainly postmenopausal women and elderly men. The results of recent research, however, indicate that osteoporosis may occur in people older than 40 as well as in youths1.

RELATED ARTICLES

Around the world, 1 in 3 women and 1 in 5 men aged fifty years and over are at risk of an osteoporotic fracture. In fact, an osteoporotic fracture is estimated to occur every 3 seconds. That’s a lot, isn’t it? The most common fractures associated with osteoporosis occur in one’s hip, spine, and wrist. So, hip fracture is associated with serious disability and excess mortality. Women who have sustained a hip fracture have a 10-20% higher mortality than would be expected for their age2. The worldwide annual incidence of hip fracture is approximately 1.7 million3.

On the other hand, hip fractures are difficult to overlook, whereas spinal fractures may remain undiagnosed. This is because they might be painless. But even if the pain is present, the person may not know that it is caused by a fracture. And if untreated, the risk of a second fracture is extremely high. So, without treatment as many as one in five women with a spinal fracture will sustain a second fracture within twelve months.

Osteoporosis risk factors

Understanding the risks of developing osteoporosis is very important since there are no external signs of the development of this disease. That is why doctors often recommend an examination, even though you may not have any complaints.

It’s also important to understand that when we talk about risk factors, we mean everything that increases your chance of getting sick. In addition, it is worth remembering that the presence of such risks, even several of them, does not mean that you will definitely have osteoporosis. Only laboratory test results can indicate the development of this disease.

Speaking of risk factors, we are talking about unchanging events (age, gender) and those that you can influence. Let’s take a closer look at each group individually.

Fixed risk factors

Although fixed risk factors cannot be changed, it is better to know about them so that measures can be taken to reduce the loss of minerals in bones. Fixed risk factors also include so called “secondary risk factors” – these are disorders and medications that weaken the bones. These risks include:

  • Age > 50 years old
  • Female gender
  • Family history of osteoporosis
  • Previous fracture
  • Ethnicity
    • Studies have found osteoporosis is more common in Caucasian and Asian populations, and osteoporosis frequency is lower in black than in white people.
  • Menopause/hysterectomy
    • Hysterectomy, if accompanied by removal of the ovaries, may also increase the risk of osteoporosis because of estrogen loss.
  • Long term glucocorticoid therapy
    • Long-term corticosteroids use is a very common cause of secondary osteoporosis and is associated with an increased risk of fracture4
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Primary/secondary hypogonadism in men
  • Thyroid problems
    • In particular, hyperthyroidism (manifested by an increase in the content of hormones T3 and T4) is linked to osteoporosis. This is because it increases the number of bone-remodelling cycles your body goes through. After the age of 30, the more of these cycles you go through, the more bone density you lose.

If you find yourself having one or more risks, then you should not think that nothing can be done about it. There are currently strategies that can reduce their impact.

Modifiable risks

Most variable risk factors directly affect bone biology and lead to a decrease in bone mineral density. However, there are also risks that increase the risk of fracture, regardless of their effect on the bone itself. So, we will consider all these risks:

  • Alcohol
  • Smoking
  • Low body mass index
  • Poor nutrition
  • Vitamin D deficiency
  • Eating disorders
  • Insufficient exercise
  • Low dietary calcium intake
  • Frequent falls

So, in relation to variable risks, appropriate actions can be taken.

Do you know your personal risk factors for osteoporosis? Take the IOF Osteoporosis Risk Awareness Test in a minute. This risk test is not a diagnostic tool: only a doctor can diagnose osteoporosis.

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What can you do to prevent osteoporosis?

There are many ways that can help maintain healthy bones and avoid premature bone loss. Making simple changes to the diet, enough exercise and giving up bad habits will not only help prevent osteoporosis, but also improve overall well-being. Let’s look at these factors to better understand how they affect the development of the disease.

Diet

A lot of studies56 showed that the typical diet does not cover the demand for nutrients, vitamins, and minerals. Firstly, especially important is the deficiency of calcium and vitamin D because it can promote a reduction in bone mineral density. Also talking about a healthy diet, you need to intake a sufficient amount of protein. So, calcium and protein are two key nutrients for bone health.

The amount of calcium you need every day depends on your age and sex. In order to determine whether its consumption complies with the norm, you can use the calcium calculator from the International Osteoporosis Foundation. The calculator takes into account calcium intake from food and supplements. The result is compared with a reference, taking into account your gender and age.

In addition, the ratio of calcium to phosphorus is important for bone health. The presence of phosphates in food products (stabilizers, anticaking agents, emulsifiers and pH stabilizers) increases phosphorus concentrations in the diet. This leads to the acidification of bodily tissues and intensified parathyroid activity. Parathyroid glands produce parathormone which promotes calcium loss from teeth and bones7. Our modern diet rarely guarantees the right balance between calcium and phosphorus.

Concerning vitamin D, it is also necessary to maintain the balance of calcium / phosphorus. And besides, its deficiency has a detrimental effect on bone quality and calcium absorption from food. For more information on vitamin D deficiency diagnosis and treatment, feel free to review the article Vitamin D – a general health hormone.

You can boost your vitamin D intake through some foods like oily fish, eggs, mushrooms, and fortified dairy foods or juices.

Food negatively affecting bone health

Whenever possible, avoid foods such as alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks. Too many soft drinks contain phosphoric acid, which increases the excretion of calcium. It’s also recommended to eschew excessive consumption of caffeine and salt.

Consuming too much salt can lead to loss of calcium. High salt diets may also lead to high blood pressure, heart disease, and even diabetes. So there are many reasons to limit its intake. Experts recommend consuming only 6 grams of salt per day.

Although caffeine is not as harmful as salt, it also has a detrimental effect on bone density. It is recommended you limit its intake to 300 mg per day. And don’t forget to provide sufficient calcium in your diet.

As for alcohol, its increased consumption is also associated with osteoporosis and fractures. Therefore, it is recommended to adhere to the recommended daily allowance.

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Exercises to prevent osteoporosis

Regular exercise is necessary for many reasons and has a beneficial effect on health. As for the prevention of osteoporosis, there are two types of exercises aimed at building and maintaining bone density. These are weight training exercises and muscle strengthening exercises.

Heavyweight exercises help strengthen bones. Examples of high-strength strength exercises are:

  • Dancing
  • Doing high-impact aerobics
  • Hiking
  • Jogging/running
  • Rope Jumping
  • Stair climbing
  • Tennis

Low-impact weight-bearing exercises can also help maintain bone strength. In addition, these exercises are a safe alternative if you cannot perform exercises with a high load. For example, if you have a high risk of fracture due to osteoporosis. Examples of such exercises:

  • Using elliptical training machines
  • Doing low-impact aerobics
  • Using stair-step machines
  • Fast walking on a treadmill or outside

Adults are encouraged to do moderate-intensity aerobic exercises. For example, you can go brisk walking for at least 2.5 hours every week.

Muscle-strengthening exercises include gravity resistance activities.

  • Lifting weights
  • Using elastic exercise bands
  • Using weight machines
  • Lifting your own body weight
  • Functional movements, such as standing and rising up on your toes

Furthermore, you should maintain healthy body weight. Too low BMI of up to 19 years old is harmful to bone health.

☝️Forewarned is forearmed.

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type 2 diabetes

TYPE 2 DIABETES: CAUSES, DIET, TREATMENTS

After posting the publication about lipid profile assessment, we received many comments and questions. Among all the questions, type 2 diabetes and the ineffectiveness of drug treatment were mentioned most often. Therefore, today we will pay attention to this particular topic, dwelling on the following points:

This article was last reviewed by Svetlana Baloban, Healsens, on March 04, 2020. This article was last modified on 15 February 2020.

  • Talk about what causes diabetes and focus on the role of nutrition for people suffering from this disease
  • Consider different ways of evaluating your lifestyle to find out what may lead preservation, and in some cases, to the progression of this disease
  • Try to find an answer to the questions: Why taking drugs may not solve the problem and what are some other ways you can help yourself.
  • Cholesterol is in normal ranges having high triglycerides, let’s review possible reasons
  • Analyze the psychological aspect of the problem, the role of chronic stress, and ways of handling it

So, diabetes is a condition that affects blood sugar levels and causes many serious health problems if left untreated or uncontrolled. There is no cure for diabetes so that is why it’s easier to head off disease before it occurs than to treat it, and regular medical check up will help with its early disease detection. In case you’ve already got this disease, treatment modalities include lifestyle modifications, treatment of obesity, oral hypoglycemic agents, and insulin sensitizers like metformin, a biguanide that reduces insulin resistance and is still the recommended first-line medication, especially for obese patients. Other effective medications include non-Sulfonylurea secretagogues, thiazolidinediones, alpha glucosidase inhibitors, and insulin.

Causes of Diabetes Type 2

Genetics and Lifestyle Choices Play a Role

Type 2 diabetes has several causes: genetics and lifestyle are the most important ones. A combination of these factors can cause insulin resistance, when your body doesn’t use insulin as well as it should. Insulin resistance is the most common cause of type 2 diabetes.

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Genetics and Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes can be hereditary. That doesn’t mean that if your mother or father has (or had) type 2 diabetes, you’re guaranteed to develop it; instead, it means that you have a greater chance of developing type 2 meaning early diabetes predictions must be part of your screening plan for diagnosing diseases. As for the genetic tests,, despite the fact that researchers know that you can inherit a risk for type 2 diabetes, they haven’t found out which genes carry the risk. The medical community is hard at work trying to figure out the certain genetic mutations that lead to a risk of type 2

Lifestyle Is Very Important

Genes do play a role in type 2 diabetes, but lifestyle choices are also important. You can, for example, have a genetic mutation that may make you susceptible to type 2, but if you take good care of your body, you may not develop diabetes. Moreover,  simple laboratory tests will help you determine the state of your body’s carbohydrate metabolism long before the disease occurs.

If you already suffer from this disease, you have probably heard a lot from the doctor or in the press about the dangers of products containing refined carbohydrates and “white” carbohydrates with the high glycemic index, such as white bread, ground rice, pasta made from premium flour and features potatoes. We will also dwell on this issue in detail and below it will be clear why this issue is so important.

When people eat food containing carbohydrates, the digestive system breaks down the digestible ones into sugar, which enters the blood. As blood sugar levels rise, the pancreas produces insulin, a hormone that prompts cells to absorb blood sugar for energy or storage. As cells absorb blood sugar, levels in the bloodstream begin to fall. When this happens, the pancreas starts making glucagon, a hormone that signals the liver to start releasing stored sugar. This interplay of insulin and glucagon ensure that cells throughout the body, and especially in the brain, have a steady supply of blood sugar.

What happens when you consume too much sugar?

A high sugar diet consumption provokes an instant increase in insulin levels, which sometimes leads to a sharp drop in blood sugar after a few hours. Hypoglycemia caused in this way (low blood sugar) provokes the desire to eat more food rich in refined sugars and starches, which leads to a new jump in insulin.

Over time, these constant “ups and downs” cause cells to lose their sensitivity to insulin, and more and more of this hormone is required for glucose transfer. This is called insulin resistance. And it becomes the root cause of the development of the metabolic syndrome leading to high blood pressure. Likewise, insulin resistance increases the risk of developing coronary heart disease. It’s also accelerating the aging process and can also lead to type II diabetes. With this type of diabetes, the pancreas can become so depleted that it completely stops producing insulin to lower blood sugar. In addition, insulin resistance is a cause of impaired fat metabolism, leading to an excess of triglycerides. That’s why having high triglycerides — a type of fat in the blood — may be a sign that you have prediabetes or type 2 diabetes.

Dietary habits and diabetes

The issue of diet is very acute! However, everyone who tried to give up refined sugar and starches knows how difficult it is and there is a completely rational explanation for this.

In 2001, a study was published in the journal Nutrition Review showing that refined sugars and starches are addictive. And if you want to exclude them from the diet, it can cause withdrawal symptoms. But getting rid of simple carbohydrates in the diet is the only and most important step that should be taken to reduce the risk of getting sick with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, as well as to reduce body weight if necessary. Only rejection of these products will make this unhealthy habit disappear. Therefore, if you want to just reduce sugar consumption, it will not bring about the elimination of this addiction. As diet is a crucial tool for managing diabetes, you can also choose some special diabetes diet capable to prevent and manage diabetes. We’re talking about the Mediterranean diet and DASH Diet.

Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load

The second important point about carbohydrates is that not all of them are harmful. To explain how different kinds of carbohydrate-rich foods directly affect blood sugar, the glycemic index was developed and is considered a better way of categorizing carbohydrates, especially starchy foods. The idea and main focus are to avoid foods with a high glycemic load (you can find tables with lists of products indicating their glycemic index and glycemic load).

The glycemic index indicates how rapidly a carbohydrate is digested and released as glucose (sugar) into the blood stream. In other words, it shows how quickly foods break down into sugar in your bloodstream. A food with a high GI raises blood sugar more than a food with a medium to low GI but does not take into account the amount of carbohydrate in a food. So glycemic load is an indicator of how a carbohydrate food will affect blood sugar.

FUCT

Low-glycemic foods have a rating of 55 or less, and foods rated 70-100 are considered high-glycemic foods.

Medium-level foods have a glycemic index of 56-69.

Foods with a glycemic load under 10 are considered low-GL foods and have little impact on your blood sugar; between 10 and 20 moderate-GL foods with moderate impact on blood sugar, and above 20 high-GL foods that tend to cause blood sugar spikes.

Try to record your diet for a week and check which of the consumed foods are among high-glycemic foods.

Measuring Blood Sugar Levels throughout the Day

The practice of measuring blood sugar levels throughout the day with a glucometer is showing excellent results. Such measurement is carried out:

  • In the morning, immediately after waking up and before eating
  • Before each meal, to answer the following questions:
    • How does choosing food and serving size affect my blood glucose?
    • When injecting food (short / ultra-short) insulin, it is necessary to check whether the dose of this insulin given before the previous meal was adequate.
    • How to adjust the nutrition and serving size in the future?
  • Two hours after a meal. We answer the following questions:
    • Has your blood glucose returned to your target after eating?
    • When injecting dietary (short / ultra-short) insulin, it is necessary to check whether the dose of this insulin given before meals was adequate?
  • Before physical activity:
    • Do I need to eat before physical activity?
    • Is it possible to engage in physical activity or should it be postponed?
  • During and after physical activity:
    • How has physical activity affect your blood glucose?
    • Does physical activity have a delayed effect on blood glucose?
    • Is there hypoglycemia?
Target Levels
by Type
Upon wakingBefore meals 
(pre prandial)
At least 90 minutes after meals
(post prandial)
Non-diabetic*4.0 to 5.9 mmol/L (72 – 106.3 mg/dL)under 7.8 mmol/L (140.54 mg/dL)
Type 2 diabetes4 to 7 mmol/L (72 – 126.13 mg/dL)under 8.5 mmol/L (153.15 mg/dL)
Type 1 diabetes5 to 7 mmol/L (90.09 mg/dL – 126.13 mg/dL)4 to 7 mmol/L (72 – 126.13 mg/dL)5 to 9 mmol/L (90.09 mg/dL – 162.16 mg/dL)
Children w/ type 1 diabetes4 to 7 mmol/L (72 mg/dl – 126.13 mg/dL)4 to 7 mmol/L (72 – 126.13 mg/dL)5 to 9 mmol/L (90.09 mg/dL – 162.16 mg/dL)

*The non-diabetic figures are provided for information but are not part of NICE guidelines.

When you finish your blood glucose check, write down your results. Then you need to note what factors may have affected them. They might include food, activity, or stress. Take a close look at your blood glucose record to see if your level is too high or too low several days in a row at about the same time. If the same thing keeps happening, it might be time to change your diabetes care plan.

A goal of such medical check up

Make the right plan for nutrition and physical activity. Your task is to find out your lifestyle where the level of glucose in the blood is within its target range, which means in such a way to remove the insulin “jumps” we talked about.

You need to take into account that there may be hidden sugars. It’s especially important for ready-made food in supermarkets. For such cases, this control will make it clear whether the food you are used to buying needs to stay on the shop shelf next time.

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Continuous Glucose Monitor

Now there are continuous glucose monitors in the medical equipment market. These devices constantly measure your sugar level throughout the day, without the need for constant blood sampling from your finger.

The system consists of three components: a sensor, a transmitter, and a receiver. The sensor is a flexible round wire that runs directly under the skin to read glucose levels and attaches to the skin with a sticky dressing. The transmitter connects to the sensor and wirelessly sends glucose information to the receiver every 5 minutes. The receiver displays glucose levels and trends. It’s about the size and weight of a mobile phone.

The essence of this process is the same – to understand which of the habits cause jumps in glucose in the blood and eliminate them. Secondly, it helps to analyze how sufficient the level of physical activity is. Remember that blood glucose levels rise when nutrition, activity level, and therapy are poorly balanced. Hyperglycemia can also occur with stress. You can read more about this in the very last section of our article.

Diet changing and physical activity increasing will necessarily lead to weight loss if there is such a problem. And for people with type 2 diabetes, losing at least some weight is a very important factor. Even a little more physical activity can have a positive effect. For example, if you get used to walking more often. So, walking was the most common activity, with numerous studies demonstrating its beneficial effects on reducing the risk of T2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and mortalityWalking for at least 30 min per day was shown to reduce the risk of T2 diabetes by approximately 50%1.

Psychosomatic Aspects Of Type 2 Diabetes

Physical and mental health are very closely related. Moreover, and either can have a significant impact on the other. According to Britneff and Winkley (2013), there is an association between mental health problems and increased diabetes complications. In addition, people with diabetes type 2 run a poorer quality of life. So managing emotional health cannot be less important than keeping blood sugar under control.

Health problems can occur if the stress response goes on for too long or becomes chronic, such as when the source of stress is constant, or if the response continues after the danger has subsided. In addition, chronic stress may also go unnoticed for a long time. That happens because different people may feel stress in different ways. For example, some people experience mainly digestive symptoms. On the other hand, others people may have headaches, sleeplessness, sadness, anger or irritability. People under chronic stress are prone to more frequent and severe viral infections, such as the flu or common cold.

Routine stress may be the hardest type of stress to notice at first. Because the source of stress tends to be more constant than in cases of acute or traumatic stress, the body gets no clear signal to return to normal functioning. In psychology, a constant high blood sugar level is sometimes associated with a resistance. The biological meaning is to help an individual better defend himself with a high sugar level. It means that nature provides additional energy in the form of sugar.

If you feel internal conflicts, experience chronic or routine stress, then in addition to the above recommendations, it is highly desirable taking practical steps to manage your stress.

How to Cope with Stress

The following are some tips that may help you to cope with stress:

  • Recognize the Signs of your body’s response to stress. For example, difficulty sleeping, increased alcohol and other substance use, being easily angered, feeling depressed (or use Online Depression Screening), and having low energy.
  • Get Regular Exercise. Just 30 minutes per day of walking can help boost your mood and reduce stress.
  • Try a Relaxing Activity. Explore stress coping programs, which may incorporate meditation, yoga, tai chi, or other gentle exercises. For some stress-related conditions, these approaches are used in addition to other forms of treatment.
  • Set Goals and Priorities. Decide what must get done and what can wait. And learn to say no to new tasks if they are putting you into overload. Note what you have accomplished at the end of the day, not what you have been unable to do.
  • Stay Connected with people who can provide emotional and other support. To reduce stress, ask for help from friends, family, and community or religious organizations.
  • Schedule a psychologist consultation to mitigate the problems.

Furthermore, numerous studies with non-diabetic populations have shown that performing various positive psychological exercises (e.g., writing gratitude letters, performing acts of kindness) have led to greater well-being2.

Comprehensive Approach to the Management of Diabetes

So, let’s summarize everything we talked about above. To cope with the problem, you need to take a comprehensive approach to assess your nutrition, physical activity, medication, and psychological health. And if the selection and dosage of medications should be carried out without fail by your attending physician, then you can handle the rest yourself.

  • Diet Revision
    • Exclusion from the diet of foods with a high glycemic load. Maintaining a balance of 33–40% of carbohydrates of the total calorie intake. However, in some cases, it may be necessary to limit the intake of carbohydrates to reduce weight and allow the cells of the pancreas to rest (from several months to a year or more).
    • Avoid cereals and fruit juices, drinks.
    • Avoid processed meats, especially sausages, sausages, etc.
    • Choose fruits with a low glycemic load.
    • Eat a moderate amount of legumes (peas, beans, lentils, peanuts, etc.) and nuts (walnuts, cashews, almonds, etc.).
    • Increase your intake of low-starch vegetables on the ground, such as white cabbage, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, leafy cabbage, curly and Beijing cabbage, broccoli, mustard leaves, chard, spinach, lettuce, peppers of all colors, green peas, celery, zucchini, cucumbers, etc. d., raw or after minimal heat treatment.
    • Be sure to eat redfish 2-3 times a week.
    • Make sure that the amount of incoming salt is moderate.
  • Increased physical activity.
  • Stress reduction.

To get additional confidence that you are doing everything correctly or, if it seems for you that you’ve already done everything according to the recommendations, but the problem persisted, it may be useful for you to check your blood sugar with a glucometer during the day. Having this data, as well as the data about what was happening at that moment, you can contact a doctor and a nutritionist to adjust the treatment.

Thank you for your attention and we hope that the material has been useful to you!

Unlock your health insights with our smart data analysis – the Free Health Tracker app, your reliable medical record!

Drastically reduce the time to detect chronic diseases & inspire healthy habits



FURTHER READING

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Source: ©️2019 Healsens B.V. All right reserve

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